Every cubic meter of coal, every liter of oil or gas, every mole of hydrocarbon taken out of the ground will get burned and added to the atmosphere. Sooner or later, by whatever chain of events, all of it will be burned for energy.
This means that if climate change is to be halted, no matter how it is done, the end result – the penultimate effect of the cause-and-effect chain – will be that fossil fuels are left in the ground. No matter how it is done, no matter by what framework or what means, no matter how indirectly, whether it is made illegal or simply uneconomic, the physical end result must be that digging up the coal largely ceases.
This simple observation means that all green initiatives by the fossil fuel industry are sham. If AGW is substantially checked, it will necessarily put them out of business.
The only way is to take these reserves out of profit-taking hands, by which I mean that they need (in the first instance) to be nationalized. The legal framework is simple, as a nation owns its mineral reserves and licenses out permission to mine them.
The next problem is getting the nation-states to stop mining the stuff, burning it and selling it to one another. But nationalization is a key first step.
I am pessimistic. This next generation will watch the world burn.